Cancel Culture

Alfred Kroeber

Alfred Kroeber and His Relations with California Indians

The Berkeley college has been invited to answer the proposal to re-name Kroeber the Corridor. We now have had little time to replicate on this. The re-naming report was ready swiftly and secretly. I used to be informed that it was a ‘categorized’ and ‘extremely confidential’ report that was to not be copied or distributed. Thus, the report was not shared with the anthropology college, a few of whom knew and/or had taught seminars on the historical past of anthropology at Berkeley and/or  revealed scholarly articles and monographs about Alfred Kroeber and his legacy.

The method of re-naming Kroeber Corridor was skewed, as a few of these on the committee have been college who clearly knew little or nothing concerning the contributions of Alfred L. Kroeber and even much less about Kroeber’s lifelong relations with Native Californians who labored carefully with him to create one of many largest archives in America on the indigenous languages and cultures of California.  The constructing of Kroeber Corridor consists of each the division of Anthropology and the Phoebe Hearst Museum of Anthropology.

To negate or ‘cancel’ Alfred L. Kroeber is to censor and defame one of the vital distinguished American anthropologists in America.

To negate or ‘cancel’ Alfred L. Kroeber is to censor and defame one of the vital distinguished American anthropologists in America. Most  college buildings are named for rich benefactors, lots of who made their fortunes by extractive capitalist measures.Kroeber Corridor is among the only a few college buildings which are named for a world well-known scholar. Along with co-founding the primary Division of Anthropology and Anthropology Museum in California, Kroeber based the American Anthropological Affiliation and its President in 1917-19. He was additionally President of the American People Society (1906); Chairman of the Anthropology and Psychology part of the Nationwide Analysis Council (1921-22), President of the Linguistic Society (1940); Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Institute in Nice Britain, Honorary President of the Academies of Science of Peru and of Denmark; and recipient of many worldwide medals and awards together with the Huxley Medal (1945). He was an elected member of the American Philosophical Society and a member American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and plenty of extra.  Kroeber’s contributions are well-known throughout the social sciences and the humanities in addition to by the pure sciences.

Kroeber’s contributions embody a number of books, edited volumes, and greater than 500 scholarly articles within the fields of linguistics, ethnology, ethnography, psychology, folklore, organic anthropology and archeology made him the best normal anthropologist in American anthropology. He was a prolific fieldworker, a theorist of cultural sample, arts and kinds and “an impartial and provocative thinker and critic” (Dell Hymes, 1961). Amongst his main publications are: The Arapaho(1902); The Yokuts Language of South Central California(1907); ZuniKin and Clan(1916), Peoples of the Philippines(1919, 1928), Anthropology(1923,1948), Handbook of the Indians of California(1925), Cultural and Pure Areas of Native North America(1939), and his extra theoretical works,Configuration of Tradition Progress(1944), TheNature of Tradition(1952),Fashion and Civilization(1957).

Anthropology Towards Racism

Kroeber was a part of the circle of ‘radical’ anthropological thinkers within the early 20thcentury who have been college students of Franz Boas, the “father” of American anthropology at Columbia College. Boas, a German Jew, had suffered anti-Semitism as an undergraduate in Kiel, Germany that made him significantly delicate to racism. He introduced his expertise of racism into his anthropological analysis of  the brand new European immigrants (from Southern and Jap Europe) who have been seen as inferior races.

Kroeber famous that Boas’s research of intergenerational immigrants demonstrated that the primary technology of recent immigrants have been traumatized by poverty, poor schooling, overcrowded housing, whereas their second and third technology have been strong, educated and accepted. It was not race however structural violence and race/ethnic bias was the primary  producer of human distress. Boas had ‘a number of deep facial scars’ following dueling occasions with anti-Semitic college students who taunted him.

Boas’ college students, lots of them radical feminist ladies, Ruth Benedict, Margaret Mead, and Zora Neale Hurston, the writer of Their Eyes Have been Watching Godand member of the Harlem Renaissance. Franz Boas revolutionized anthropology by breaking out of racist typical knowledge. (see Charles King’s guide, Gods of the Higher Air: How a Circle of Renegade Anthropologists Reinvented Race, Intercourse, and Gender within the Twentieth Century’) Kroeber was a part of this progressive anthropologist motion that was decided to show that the outstanding ideology of eugenicswas a false science, that IQ checks have been nonsense, and that the one really ‘primitive’ folks have been those that believed that Western Tradition and white folks have been superior to different cultures and civilizations.  Above all, they argued that ‘race’, because it was then understood, was a man-made class, a social assemble, based mostly on a 19thcentury idea of social evolution. All of them engaged a idea of nature and tradition as indivisible ideas. How a senior editor of the Every day Cal might confer with Alfred Kroeber as a ‘white supremacist’ as her takeaway of the Un-Naming of Kroeber Corridor,  has achieved a fantastic injustice unworthy of college students.

Kroeber died in Paris throughout a global anthropological convention. Theodora Kroeber stated that he died in her arms, however the well-known French anthropologist, Claude Levi-Strauss stated that Kroeber had died in his arms on the rostrum of the convention.  When Levi-Strauss got here to Berkeley in 1984 to provide a sequence of lectures> he requested to see the most recent concern of  the Kroeber Anthropology Society Journal, a graduate scholar journal that Levi-Strauss a lot admired.  He additionally requested to see and to the touch a stupendous Yurok canoe that Kroeber and his colleague T.T. Waterman had donated to the Anthropology Museum.

I’m making an attempt to carry us again to a special time to know what drove two of the best anthropologists within the 20thcentury, each of whom devoted their lives to the preservation of indigenous cultures, their languages, their mythologies, their artwork, and their religions. In Levi-Strauss’s ‘Necrologie’ (Obituary) of Kroeber he stated: ‘ Pour Kroeber, l’anthropologie na’etait pas une science comme une autre. Elle unissait dans sademarche les sciences naturelles et les sciences humaines…il constatait que I’anthropologie vat toujoures step or lui une sorte de faith.’ (For Kroeber, anthropology was not a science like another. its method was to unite  pure sciences and the human sciences … he [Krober] famous that anthropology has all the time been a type of faith).

The historical past of California and of the College of California is steeped within the multi-generational traumas skilled by Native Californians.  It’s a time, as soon as once more, for severe reckonings, acknowledgements of previous errors, atonement, and reparation towards a brand new social and political contract. This reckoning and re-naming is occurring throughout a revolutionary second when the statues and monuments of slavers, Indian killers, colonialists, and racists together with Junipero Serra, Juande Onate, Columbus, and Accomplice statues (like ‘Silent Sam’ who till lately graced the gates of the College of North Carolina, Chapel Hill) are being destroyed or eliminated. The college’s aim is to determine which buildings are named for people who characterize the meanings and values of the college somewhat than names bought by wealth alone.

For instance, the college of the Division of Physics voted overwhelmingly to take away the title of the Le Conte brothers who grew up on a plantation with 200 enslaved people and, when the Civil Conflict broke out, who helped the Confederacy manufacture gunpowder and who after the warfare went on to is devoted racists.To place Alfred Kroeber in the identical class because the Le Conte brothers or Boalt or Barrows is to slander and erase the contributions of a global scholar and founding father of trendy anthropology.

To cancel AL Kroeber additionally means the negating and deriding Kroeber’s spouse, Theodora Kroeber, the writer of Ishi in Two Worlds, and Kroeber’s daughter, Ursula Kroeber Le Guinn, who produced beloved books that have been impressed by Kroeber’s ethnologies of Native Californians and the tragic story of Ishi that reverberates in her of magical surrealist novels: Planet of ExileMetropolis of IllusionsThe Phrase for World Is ForestThe Dispossessed, and eventually in 1969 her masterpiece, The Left Hand of Darkness.  If UC Berkeley erases Kroeber, the legacy of Kroeber together with two sensible ladies authors writing in several genres about our Californian indigenous historical past may also be erased.

UN-Naming: If Kroeber Then Additionally Phoebe Apperson Hearst

Ought to the ultimate consensus finish with the choice to un-name Kroeber Corridor it ought to logically embody the un-namingof Phoebe Hearst whose title adorns the Museum of Anthropology. ‘Kroeber Corridor’ is dwelling to each the Anthropology Division and the Phoebe Hearst Anthropology Museum. Phoebe Hearst was the co-founder and benefactor of each establishments. She recruited Kroeber and paid his modest wage to be the primary professor within the (new) Division of Anthropology in Berkeley and likewise Curator of the Anthropology Museum then positioned on Mount Parnassus in San Francisco. Phoebe Hearst envisioned the Museum to function a location for her big collections of Egyptian mummies, artwork and artifacts from her travels in Egypt in addition to a number of hundred sacred objects and ancestral Californian stays that she had acquired or bought. If Kroeber Corridor is un-named so should Phoebe Hearst Museum.

In reality, it makes much more sense to un-name the Phoebe Hearst Museum given the lengthy and persevering with investigations, audits, and critiques of the Hearst Museum bearing on the museum’s coverage of ‘non-consent’ in returning 1000’s of indigenous artwork, artifacts, and ceremonial artifacts and most primarily the native ancestor stays and mortuary objects. The violations and delays of NAGPRA requests are human rights violations that should not have any place immediately within the College of California. Among the many college appointed to the Berkeley NAGPRA committee and to the Renaming Committee are those that know higher, having served previously because the ‘protectors’ of the museum’s ancestral stays. These stays have at varied occasions been held captive within the basements of the Museum and below the UC tennis courts and within the basement of the Hearst Memorial Gymnasium <>

In September 27, 2018, the California legislature handed Meeting Invoice No. 2836, initiated by former governor Jerry Brown and by Governor Gavin Newsom, ‘requires all businesses and museums that obtain state funding which have possession or management over collections of California Native American human stays or cultural objects, as outlined, to stock these stays and objects for the identification and repatriation of the objects to the suitable Indian tribes.’  We now have but to see it in motion. to the ‘Cancel Kroeber’ Assessment Committee

The report of the Native American Advisory Council to the Vice Chancellor for Fairness and Inclusion, signed by fourteen college members, is riddled with errors and misinformation. The language of the report is accusatorial somewhat than scholarly. It’s poorly written and missing proof, footnotes, sources, references, and bibliographies to help what’s a clean condemnation of AL Kroeber.  The references to the “horrificnaming of Kroeber Corridor”…[which] “hinders the restore of a broken relationshipwith Native Californians and all Indigenous folks” and whose title has ‘all the time been objectionable’ to Native Individuals who now acknowledge [him] as “objectionable.

With none proof, the report concludes that: ‘The namesake of Kroeber Corridor, Professor Alfred Kroeber, engaged in analysis       practices which are reprehensible. He has come to represent a technology of   students at Berkeley who failed to think about essential moral implications of their work in anthropology and archaeology. Kroeber and his colleagues engaged in   assortment of the stays of Native American ancestors, which has all the time been      morally mistaken and is now unlawful. Kroeber pronounced the Ohlone to be culturally         extinct, a declaration that had horrible penalties for these folks. Kroeber’s     therapy of a Native American man we all know as ​Ishi​ and the dealing with of his   stays was merciless, degrading, and racist.’

These accusations could be simply contested by way of the Berkeley archives of A.L. Kroeber that embody his letters, fieldnotes, maps, lectures, and college students, that included many ladies and Native Individuals.  Cora Du Bois performed ethnographic analysis on a number of Native American teams of northern California and the Pacific Northwest, together with theWintu  Indians of northern California. She revealed The 1870 Ghost Dance in 1939, a deep research of areligious motion amongst Native Individuals within the west of the US.  On many events I took guests from varied California Rancherias who have been eager about getting knowledge about 19thcentury bounty hunters in addition to to the Bancroft to learn the fieldnotes of Kroeber, TT Waterman, and RF Heizer.

 Through the lengthy, ugly and violent historical past of California and its UC universities with respect to Native Californians, AL Kroeber was an ally not an enemy. Past his meticulous writings, audio transcriptions, images, conferences, his co-authoring of books and articles together with his Native Californian informants and colleagues Kroeber went to federal court docket as an knowledgeable witness on behalf of a California Indian land rights lawsuit, ‘Indians of California, Docket No. 37 on June 23, 1952. Kroeber ready an up to date and detailed map of all of the indigenous linguistic teams in California that he had drawn for his Handbook of California (1925). Kroeber, who was very previous at the moment, responded to a cross-examination three hours a day for ten days by which he supported the land rights of the  Indians. He argued that all of the landin California, not simply explicit recognized websites of Californian bands and tribes, belonged to Native Californians. His sturdy testimony helped win the case nevertheless it took many years earlier than the tribes acquired small reparations for the plunder if their lands.  (see  Omer C. Stewart, Kroeber and the Indian Claims Fee Instances) < content/kas025-013.pdf>

As for the accusation  that AL Kroeber was concerned in excavations of Native California graves, Julian Stewart’s 50-page obituary of Kroeber within the 1960 journal American Anthropologist, wrote that  “Kroeber was by no means a bodily anthropologist, and, though he summarized fundamental info in his guide, Anthropology,his publications on the topic have been negligible. He  had no predisposition to be a area archeologist.”

Equally, Dell Hymes, who joined the Berkeley anthropology division in 1960, wrote an extended obituary of Kroeber in Language, vol. 37:1 (1961) stating that Kroeber was firstly a linguist. ‘Half of Kroeber’s publications have been wholly or partly contributions to linguistics’:

Kroeber accepted the place of curator of the anthropology museum through the early years of his place within the College of California, after which positioned in San Francisco. Of the greater than 500 scholarly articles none are based mostly on human stays. Kroeber didn’t train archeology and he averted archeological excavations in California Indian burial sights. His colleague, Theodore McCown, solely did  excavations ofprehistoricwebsites in Palestine. There have been complaints that “New World archeology, together with California which had been uncared for by Kroeber[See: ‘Obituary’ of Kroeber in the American Anthropologist by Julian Steward:]

An obituary of Kroeber revealed in American Antiquity(v. 27,1962) by Professor John Rowe, a senior historian of Anthropology within the Berkeley Division  acknowledged that Kroeber didn’t interact in area archaeology (i.e., digging ). On the second web page of the article there  is a photograph of Kroeber (see beneath) standing by an excavated native burial web site at Miller Mound, Colusa County, California in July 1936. The photograph was taken by Robert F. Heizer, a younger Berkeley archeologist whose analysis centered on prehistoric and historic Native American peoples of the western United States, significantly in Nevada and California.

Rowe writes that Kroeber’s main  pursuits have been in linguistics, ethnology, and folklore and that he thought of himself a cultural anthropologist. He wrote:  ‘So far as I’ve been capable of decide, [Kroeber] undertook no archaeological area work of his personal, however the division [of anthropology] was carrying on an energetic program of survey and excavation in California below the course of John Campbell Merriam, a paleontologistand chair of the Division of Paleontology.’

What was Kroeber doing on this photograph?  Like Kroeber, I typically visited archeological websites, as soon as in Virginia to go to my colleague, the late Prof. JamesDietz  and a group of 35 Berkeley archaeology college students who  have been busy digging at his web site in early  colonial southern plantation, Flower dew Hundred, the place he and his group have been excavating the stays of slave quarters and earlier Indian burial websites . past/Part%206-16.pdf.  Dietz was an moral archaeologist and he was extra within the pot shards and grave stones than in human stays, however the Indian burial mounds and slave graves have been of curiosity to him and he identified that the slaves positioned and adorned their graves in accordance with West African traditions. In Fort Burgwin, New Mexico the place I taught summer time lessons in ethnographic strategies, I lived facet by facet with an archaeologist from Southern Methodist College (SMU) who was excavating  human stays on the web site of  Submit Creek Pueblo, a 13th century pueblo positioned on personal land owned by the College.  That is what archeologist have been nonetheless doing with out concern within the 1970s and 1980s. Till twenty years in the past the well-known Faculty of Anthropology Analysis (SAR) had a big assortment of native ancestor sacred and human stays. I collaborated with one of many Administrators at SAR in an try to repatriate these possessions and to make the Institute ‘pleasant’ to the encircling pueblos. The governors of two of the pueblos informed me that they’d by no means step foot inside that  unlawful ‘mortuary’ (SAR). At the moment repatriation was unknown to native rich benefactors to the establishment.

Solely in recent times have these archeological strategies and ethics  modified. Let him who’s with out sin forged the primary stone’.

A second grievance about Kroeber was his public opinion that the  Muwekma Ohlone Tribe, within the Bay Space was near ‘extinction’. It’s a horrible and inconsiderate phrase. Most of Kroeber’s writings  on native tribes in California have been based mostly on linguistics in addition to ethnologies of  religions, cosmologies, arts, weaving, story telling, and rituals. When native languages started to vanish he was not within the English talking or Spanish talking native Californians . Kroeber wrote that Western societies have been typically much less ‘civilized’ than these  indigenous communities. He wrote concerning the nice migration of white settlers, miners and ranchers who, following the California Gold Rush (1848–1855),remained to populate indigenous communities and territories.  In his Handbook on California Indians, Kroeber (1925) pronounced the Costanoan Indians, together with the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe within the Bay Space,  as on the sting of cultural extinction. As one might think about this declaration was then as and is immediately a horrible mistaken by Kroeber.  His judgment influenced the choice of presidency staff to disclaim the Muwekma federal recognition standing. ( see Leventhal et al. 1994:312).

Kroeber’s disastrous opinion was based mostly on  the early assimilation of the tribe. Through the colonial conquest the Muwekma tribe was largely transformed to Catholicism and had tailored Spanish over their native language. They’d intermarried with settlers and different tribes. By the point that  Kroeber performed his fieldwork with the Muwekma folks in Pleasanton within the early1900s, their lifestyle had first been remodeled by the Spanish conquest for almost 130 years.  What Kroeber didn’t anticipate was the power and resilience of the Bay Space Ohlone who needed to consistently adapt to cultural and political upheavals as a consequence of colonization. The Ohlone like different California tribes confronted violence and racism, spiritual persecution, financial exploitation, and institutionalized discrimination. Every wave of colonization introduced new types of devastation to the pure setting, new ailments and well being circumstances and few obtainable therapies to all of which they needed to adapt.  Nonetheless, the Ohlone tribe  not solely survived these persecutions they’ve been lengthy since concerned in a strong resistance and revitalization of  Ohlone language and tradition.

The place Am I Coming From

I’m a cultural and medical anthropologist who has performed most her work in rural  Eire, Brazil, and South Africa finding out political and structural violence. For a number of years I used to be each founder and director of  Berkeley Organs Watch, with funds from George Soros and from the college. Between 1999- 2015  I performed analysis on the trafficking in human organs and on autopsies and dissections and removals of organs with out consent in forensic institutes, hospitals and clinics  in Brazil, US, Israel, South Africa, Turkey, the Philippines  and elsewhere. I’ve revealed extensively on this analysis and I’ve served as an knowledgeable guide with the US Division of Justice, Homeland Safety, the WHO, the UN, and the EU , and the Vatican on human organ  trafficking of the useless and the dwelling.

Based mostly on two  summer time analysis in  the 1980s Taos, Taos Pueblo, Picuris and Santa Clara  Pueblos, I revealed  an article, “The Better of Worlds, The Worst of To Worlds: ‘Reflections on Tradition and Fieldwork  amongst Rural Irish and Pueblo Indians’  in  Comparative Research in Society and Historical past by which I grappled with the ethics of finding out social points and troubles coping with alcohol, anomie, and suicide in small and considerably remoted communities (Scheper-Hughes 1979,UC Press).

In 1985 I chaired an American Anthropological Affiliation panel in Washington, D.C. on  “Anthropological Views on the Safety of Native American Burials: Cultural Values and Skilled Ethics within the Remedy of the Lifeless”. This panel was 5 years earlier than the federal legislation of NAGPRA was handed. The auditorium was packed and dozens of Native American leaders attended the occasion and demonstrated with a weeklong starvation strike.  One of many discussants, Prof. William Simmons (now deceased), was a member of our UCB anthropology college. He informed the story of how he turned a cultural anthropologist whereas getting his diploma at Harvard College as an archeologist. Invoice, as we referred to as him, had a ‘get up’ second when he was despatched out in a truck to choose up some Native American bones at a rural dig web site in Massachusetts.  He put the skeletal stays behind his truck however after a mile or so he circled after considering that these bones might need been these of his Native American ancestors.  He reburied the bones and have become a cultural anthropologist.

In 2007 I used to be invited to accompany an official NAGPRA group of Tlingit leaders and elders from Sitka Alaska. They spent per week in Berkeley making an attempt to have entry to the inventories of a number of tons of of valuable wood carvings, robes, headdresses, and human stays. They have been denied from seeing virtually every little thing by the Museum employees.  The US authorities despatched the Tlingit stock to me. It was monumental. After days of negotiation the NAGPRA group was solely allowed to view a number of objects whereas carrying plastic gloves and watched over by the museum employees. I used to be with them after they prayed over objects. Afterward the eldest member of the NAGPRA group requested me if I had heard the spirits of the carvings who have been saying “allow us to out of right here; we’re chilly down right here”. The chief of the NAGPRA group, Harold Jacobs, was mute with rage. He actually couldn’t communicate for the primary few days. They left, as did different Angora tasks, empty handed to today. I’ve saved in contact with Mr. Jacobs. I had related experiences with Maidu NAGPRA teams who weren’t allowed to see the inventories or their tribe’s possessions.

Alfred Kroeber and Ishi

Alfred Kroeber and Ishi : A Morality Story

The “Re-naming Kroeber Committee’ argued that A L Kroeber’s ‘therapy of a Native American man we all know as Ishi and the dealing with of his stays was merciless, degrading, and racist’. They described  Ishi  (the so-called final of the Yani Indians) as a captive and a ‘specimen’.  I’ll strive to answer that accusation.

Ishi was born throughout a time of intense battle (1860 -1865) simply after the California Gold Rush that introduced 1000’s of immigrants to the normal homeland of Yahi Indians at Feather River and Mill Creek. The Yahi have been blamed for a number of murders of white settlers close to the village of Oroville. After the bloodbath of remaining members of the Yahi tribe, the Yahi have been believed to have been ‘exterminated’.

There are dozens of descriptions of this story, Theodora Kroeber’s fantastically written guide Ishi in Two WorldsIshi the Final Yahi: a Documentary Historical past,edited by Robert Heizer and Theodora Kroeber. Orin Sarn’s Ishi’s Mind: In Search of America’s Final Wild Indian (WW Norton, 2004), and Douglas Cazaux Sackman’s Wild Males: Ishi and Kroeber within the Wilderness of Fashionable America (Oxford, 2010).  Every brings completely different views and conclusions.My very own analysis in Orville and plenty of conversations with Artwork Angle ( political chief of Enterprise Rancheria) and the late Mickey Gimmel, Pit River Tribe chairman, launched me to the deep harms achieved by the state of California and by the college. Acareful research of the Medical Historical past of ISHI (American Archaeology and Ethnology vol. 13, no.5 pp. 175-213) helped me to know what Ishi had suffered  earlier than he died.

In March 1999 I used to be invited to talk at a California Senate assembly on “Ishi and Reparation at UC Berkeley”. One in all our Berkeley archeologists was placed on the spot. He was requested what number of NAGPRA petitions for the repatriation of indigenous possessions and human stays had been returned to them. The reply was none. It was virtually ten years after NAGPRA.The rationale for the delay, he stated, was the necessity to catalogue tons of of unidentified California Indian stays and objects, which have been in nice disarray. Later many human “ specimens” have been “drowned” within the basements of the Hearst swimming pool.

In 2000 I used to be invited to the celebration of the return of Ishi’s mind on Mount Lassen.  I’ve since  written 4 articles and guide chapters on  Kroeber and Ishi ( ‘Ishi’s Mind, Ishi’s Ashes: the Anthropology of genocide” ( 2001) in Anthropology At this time(UK); an extended model in Ishi in Three Centuries, edited by Karl Kroeber and Clifton Kroeber; “Coming to our Senses: Anthropology and Genocide”, in Annihilating Distinction: The Anthropology of Genocide, edited by Alexander Hinton ( UC Press, 2002) and many others.)

Here’s a quick rendition of the connection between the person referred to as Ishi and Alfred Kroeber.

Ishi was a toddler about six years previous when he and his 4 remaining kin went into seclusion for nearly 40 years, hiding out, making themselves  as invisible as they may  from the bounty hunters and white ranchers who have been decided to kill each single member of his remaining Yahi band. As a toddler and younger little one Ishi stayed near ladies and he went with them to gather seeds and reeds. He discovered to make baskets. When he was older he spent extra time with  the boys and discovered about looking and fishing and making instruments. However their freedom was curtailed by the desires of gold miners and the greed of the land grabbing settlers.

When Ishi lastly stumbled out of Mount Lassen after crossing  a troublesome terrain  and swimming throughout a river the place one of many ladies of his band had drowned, and others had died of exhaustion, one other eaten by coyotes, Ishi was certainly the final of his kin group. He now had nowhere to go and when he left his secure locations in deer creek to enter town of Oroville at daybreak the place he was caught in a slaughterhouse. Canine barked at Ishi and an adolescent who labored their look to seek out the thief and located Ishi hiding on the ground in a nook.

‘Ishi’ spent virtually per week  in jail whereas the native sheriff  tried to get assist from outdoors. He didn’t know what to do with Ishi who was extraordinarily traumatized. Crowds of  native folks got here to see the ‘wild man’ in jail.  Ishi was ravenous  and when given a bowl of beans he devoured them down and requested for extra, please. He was given unfastened  tobacco and cigarette papers to make his personal. A photographer  named John Hogan arrived and was given permission to take tons of of images of Ishi standing and sitting down in his tattered garments. What did folks need to see Hogan questioned. A pathetic fugitive or a noble and courageous Indian?  He tried to pose Ishi in varied positions. Ishi was silent and considerably inflexible. He was afraid of the digital camera. Sheriff Weber introduced a number of native Maidu Indians to talk with the person. It didn’t work. He shook his head.

Somebody advised that the sheriff discover a man named Sam Batwi, one in every of two recognized Maidu/Yahi audio system. When Batwi arrived he was wearing a go well with and had grown a brief beard and was carrying a pair of spectacles. When Batwi was dropped at the jail Ishi was impressed. However when Batwi began  to press the person for solutions – The place do you come from? Who’re your kin? The place are they? He pointed to himself and raised one finger saying that he was alone. However was he telling the reality to save lots of his small band? Lastly he stated a couple of issues. He as soon as had a lady, however she died. He needed to know if the sheriff would punish him for stealing sheep and taking issues from cabins.

Ishi informed Batwi that he didn’t know if the sheriff who handed him a gun which Ishi refused, needed to  kill him. He didn’t belief the sheriff and nor did he belief Sam Batwi who was not a correct Maidu/Yahi. Finally he informed Batwi how he had wandered alone via the mountains and the way the dashing waters had drowned half of them and the way he had dug shallow graves to bury them. He sang a loss of life chant whereas he as soon as once more  raised one finger and pointed to himself  to indicate that he was now alone, that there have been no others of his to seek out and no the place for him to go.

Sheriff Weber negotiated with the College Of California to take custody of the traumatized man who was now homeless and bereft. When he took Ishi out of the jail to acquaint him to town, he put handcuffs on Ishi’s fingers. Ishi requested Batwi if the stainless steelhandcuffs have been a gift for him, and the way to take them off. Lastly Professor Kroeber  was referred to as  and requested to intervene.  Whereas Ishi was nonetheless in Oroville Kroeber enlisted assist from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in Washington, DC. who gave Kroeber permission to carry the person to San Francisco. Kroeber agreed that he can be Ishi’s guardian and stated that the person would have an ‘impartial life’ whereas dwelling  and dealing as a custodian within the  Anthropology Museum.  The settlement was made.

Kroeber despatched T.T. (Thomas ) Waterman, a Berkeley teacher in linguistics  to Orville to carry Ishi again to San Francisco and to the Anthropology Museum the place Kroeber had his workplace and a go well with of rooms that he might share with Ishi till they may work out what to do. Ishi was relieved to be out of jail however the crowds of individuals overwhelmed him. Waterman and Batwi would accompany him. “Too many saltu”, white ghosts, Ishi informed Batwi as they started the voyage to San Francisco. They traveled  by practice, ferry, and a trolley automotive to Kroeber’s museum the place Ishi  was given a room, a cushty mattress, recent clothes, and many meals. Kroeber let him sleep earlier than he would attempt to discuss to him the following day.

Kroeber noticed and handled Ishi as a ward in addition to an informant. Kroeber  was anticipated to care for Ishi. Kroeber and Waterman took turns retaining firm with the person that Kroeber referred to as Ishi (man, in Yana). It was Waterman, the linguist, who wrote essentially the most about Ishi’s life earlier than and whereas he was  grappling with a brand new (and final)  life in San Francisco. Ishi acknowledged Kroeber because the boss. He referred to as Kroeber ‘large chief’.  He befriended the UC hospital surgeon, Sexton Pope, with whom he spent many days and weekends looking with arrows in native woods.

 Ishi Was Not a Captive 

Ishi was taken across the metropolis till he received his personal cognitive  map of the brand new world he had entered. He not often spoke about his final years in Yahi nation, and when he did he turned very unhappy. Many individuals affiliated with Kroeber and  Kroeber himself  requested Ishi if he needed to return to his homeland. Ishi stated no. On one event Kroeber requested Ishi if he wish to go on a tenting tour to Deer Creek, his former dwelling. Based on Waterman Ishi turned apprehensive and fearful that the tour may finish with them leaving him for good within the foothills the place he had spent his early years. Ishi replied with various ‘rational’ objections to this plan. One was that within the hills there have been no homes; one other was that there have been no chairs or beds; a 3rd was that there was little or no to eat. He stated that he was too previous to return into the wilderness and that there have been too many ghosts there.  (TT Waterman, 1995, The Final Wild Tribe of California, revealed in Standard Science Month-to-month, March, 1915, pp. 233-244).

Ishi was a really refined man, a lot extra that could be stated right here. He was stoic and a particularly disciplined individual. He was very delicate and what some white folks known as ‘nicely mannered.’ He was an mental in that he understood precisely why Kroeber and his anthropological pals needed to file his data of Yahi tradition, songs, tales, and cosmology. It was valuable and beneficial.

To whom else might he give his data and knowledge? He had no kin and he had no kids. Kroeber stated that Ishi was so extra clever than his undergraduate college students. Ishi demonstrated to museum guests how the Yahi do a fireplace starter and the way to make bows, arrows, factors, a rope snare from hemp fibers, a salmon harpoon, and different crafts  that have been so important to his formative years.

Nobody compelled Ishi to do these items and he appeared to take pleasure in being a trainer of  his Yahi tradition. Nonetheless, he saved many secrets and techniques that he would take with him. Although he would by no means give his title, he beloved asking kids within the streets close to he lived what their names have been and if that they had a nickname. His private beliefs concerning the afterworld have been additionally off the file. On one event a customer requested him if he believed in God. ‘Certain Mike!’, he stated with a twinkle in his eye.

If we consider Ishi as what he was, a survivor of genocide we are able to perceive his needs to remain simply the place he was, secure and heat.  Ishi had suffered sufficient through the years of his actualcaptivity hiding together with his mom  (or his aunt) and a youthful  lady who could have been his spouse (the Yahi time period he used might imply both) and the others he misplaced as they tried to cross a river that left him from 5 to only one. When Kroeber agreed to ‘take care’ of Ishi with out figuring out what else he  ought to or might do, he agreed with US Indian Affairs to be Ishi’s guardian.  Ishi and Kroeber have been respectful to one another, however Ishi had different and  extra intimate pals, his translators, Tom Waterman and most of all  Dr. Pope to not point out the  type Italian grocery man down the way in which from Parnassus and the Museum.

Earlier than lengthy Ishi  turned a star of types. He went to the flicks and to the Opera, neither of which he favored, however he got here to essentially benefit from the trolley vehicles and the clanging of their bells. He  stated that didn’t thoughts being a part-time custodian as a result of he actually favored the silver {dollars} that have been in his weekly paycheck. Just like the Yurok, Ishi was cautious and frugal and he saved most of his cash in a financial institution. After a interval of overeating Ishi averted candy issues like sugar donuts and he started to drop some pounds. He dressed nicely aside from sneakers. He needed to have ‘his ft on the bottom’. He loved visiting with the sufferers who have been shut by the museum, the College hospital. He favored to take a seat by every mattress. He typically sang or gave the impression to be praying to every of the sufferers, lots of who thought he was a fantastic healer. What he didn’t like concerning the  museum and the hospital have been the surgical procedures and dissections of the useless.

When Ishi started to get unwell, his physician Saxton Pope was late in diagnosing Ishi’s rampant tuberculosis. Ishi accepted his loss of life of TB with grace. He was calm and  stated that he would quickly be collectively together with his useless kin.

Ishi’s Ashes, Ishi’s Mind

The ultimate story opened within the spring of 1999 with the lengthy overdue acknowledgement and repatriation of Ishi’s mind from the Smithsonian Establishment the place it was present in a warehouse bobbing in an aquarium. Anthropologists at Berkeley differed of their opinions of what, if something needs to be stated or achieved. Some have been embarrassed by the preliminary denials concerning the info of the post-mortem and elimination of Ishi’s mind.

In response to a letter despatched on Might 21, 1997 to UC President Atkinson and Governor Wilson by Artwork Angle, a Maidu chief from Enterprise Rancheria, Oroville, who had lengthy been looking out to find Ishi’s mind, Jay Stowsky, an officer within the Workplace of Provost and Educational Affairs replied:

“As was reported within the College’s first response to your letter, a preliminary   search of the College information didn’t produce ant proof that any a part of  Ishi’s stays have been ever preserved for scientific research on the College of California. A extra thorough search of the college archives performed by museum researcher Ira Jacknis, together with a canopy letter and additional rationalization of the report by Dr. Rosemary Joyce, Director of the Phoebe Hearst Museum of     Anthropology concluded that’ based mostly on all obtainable historic proof, the mind   of Ishi was eliminated just for functions of post-mortem after which positioned again with the remainder of his stays to be cremated on the Laurel Hill cemetery close to San Francisco  shortly after his loss of life on March 25, 1916. We acknowledge that this is a matter of utmost significance to the Native group, and we now have pursued this  investigation fastidiously in order that we might offer you a definitive reply. As Director Joyce notes, ‘it was a tragedy that Ishi’s physique was topic to post-mortem           in opposition to his needs. However it seems that there isn’t any historic help for the concept his mind was maintained as a scientific specimen.”

On the time that this letter was composed, the Anthropology Museum was nonetheless promoting reprints of  ‘The Medical Historical past of Ishi ‘ by Saxton Pope, College of California Publications in American Archeology and Ethnographyvol. 13, No. 5, pp. 38-44, Eight textual content figures, Might 15, 1920. I’ve by no means learn an post-mortem fairly like this one, an extended and at occasions  virtually literary rendition of the loss of life and the useless physique of an individual. It opens: “Usually incidental information of human life are essentially the most fascinating and illuminating. The elements of well being, heredity, predispositions and psychic reactions which are  the making of historic occasions…On the time he arrived [in Oroville] he was undoubtedly in a state of hunger…The images taken at the moment reveals how nice the privations should have been to carry him to such a state of bodily attenuation.. Ishi made the assertion [ to Dr. Pope]  that he was not sick however he had no meals.”  From this one can conclude that the Yahi have been dwelling in a  state of affairs of ‘feast and famine’.

Whereas every organ was measured and returned to his physique, the post-mortem lined way more territory. It concluded with Ishi’s medical funeral: “His physique was carried to the undertakers the place his physique was embalmed…Professor Waterman, M.E. W. Gifford, Mr. Loud of the Museum and I [Saxton Pope] visited the funeral parlor, and we positioned in his open coffin his bow, a quiver filled with arrows, ten items of [silver] Indian cash, dried venison, acorn meal, hearth sticks, and a small amount of tobacco. We then accompanied the physique to Laurel Hill cemetery close to San Francisco the place it was cremated. The ashes have been positioned in a  small [Pueblo] pottery on which is learn: Ishi, the final Yahi, died March 25,1916.”

As for Ishi’s mind the official post-mortem lists it on the following to final web page with a quick description: “Mind- weighs 1300 grams. It’s eliminated and reveals no gross abnormalities apart from some enhance in fats beneath the pia  (the fragile innermost membrane enveloping the mind and spinal twine). The cranium is small and somewhat thick.”

It was ‘eliminated by whom  after which what?

Artwork Angle, the Enterprise Rancheria Maidu chief, was sure that Ishi’s mind was eliminated based mostly on his personal analysis about archaeologist’s seemingly limitless diggings in quest of Native stays. Artwork knew concerning the finish of Ishi’s ‘captivity’ dwelling among the many ‘anthros’. However he was keen sufficient to work with Orin Starn, myself and some different  “Anthros”.  Following the official information launch indicating that Ishi’s mind had, certainly, been traced to the Smithsonian, a departmental assembly was held and a proposed assertion was debated, many occasions revised, and eventually accepted because the collective response of the Division of Anthropology at Berkeley. I used to be one in every of three anthropology division members who have been requested to put in writing a press release that will be launched to the general public media. Whereas falling wanting the apology to Northern California Indians {that a} majority of the college had signed, the ultimate unanimous assertion learn:

The current restoration of a well-known California Indian’s mind from a Smithsonian warehouse has led the Division of Anthropology on the College of California Berkeley to revisit and replicate on a troubling chapter of our historical past. Ishi, whose household and cultural group, the Yahi Indians, have been murdered as a part of the genocide that characterised the inflow of western settlers to California, lived out his final years on the unique museum of anthropology on the College of California. He served as an informant to one in every of our division’s founding members, Alfred Kroeber, in addition to to different native and visiting anthropologists. The character of the relationships between Ishi and the anthropologists and linguists who labored with him for some 5 years on the museum have been complicated and contradictory.  Regardless of Kroeber’s lifelong devotion to California Indians and his friendship with Ishi, he failed in his efforts to honor Ishi’s needs to not be autopsied and he inexplicably organized for Ishi’s mind to be shipped to and to be curated on the Smithsonian. We acknowledge our division’s position in what occurred to Ishi, a person who had already misplaced all that was expensive to him. We strongly urge that the method of returning Ishi’s mind to acceptable Native American representatives be speedily achieved. We’re contemplating varied methods to pay honor and respect to Ishi’s reminiscence. We regard public participation as a obligatory part of those discussions and particularly we invite the peoples of Native California to instruct us in how we could higher serve the wants of their communities via our analysis associated actions. Maybe, working collectively, we are able to make sure that the following millennium will characterize a brand new period within the relationship between indigenous peoples, anthropologists, and the general public.”

On the  formal Hearings on ‘Ishi’s Mind and  Reparations’on the California state legislature in Sacramento, California on 5 April 1999  I  learn the letter of the Berkeley Anthropology college.  I made a decision to incorporate the unique apology (that a couple of dissenting  members of the division, together with George Foster, refused to signal) in order that the apology could possibly be on the file:

“We’re sorry for our division’s position, nevertheless unintentional, within the ultimate betrayal of Ishi, a person who had already misplaced all that was expensive to him by the hands of Western colonizers and we acknowledge that the exploitation and betrayal of Native Individuals continues to be commonplace in American society”.

Some Indian leaders who have been current on the hearings accepted the apology, seeing it as a ‘large step’ for anthropology and for the College of California. Others dismissed the apology as ‘too little and too late’. Clearly, the distrust between Native Individuals and anthropologists based within the his- tory of genocide (and genocide ignored) requires greater than an apology or a scholarly convention to honor Ishi.

The return of Ishi’s mind from the Smithsonian to the Pit River tribe on August 8, 2000, and the two-day celebration at Summit Lake on Mt. Lassen of communal feasting and therapeutic dancing, a couple of weeks after the key burial, was a primary step towards extra constructive engagement between anthropologists and the survivors of California’s genocides. Not all Native Californians spoke nicely of Ishi at that occasion. Some resented the truth that he accepted sanctuary with whites and the ‘anthros’. Younger folks, particularly, have been fast to evaluate Ishi: Why didn’t Ishi run away from the Anthro Museum? However their elders have been extra understanding, placing themselves in his sneakers, imagining how they themselves may behave in related circumstances. They acknowledged Ishi as a person dealing with genocide. ‘We have to suppose in a great way now and to seek out methods to honor our grandfather Ishi.’ After I apologized at the celebration of Ishi’s stays, one of many elder ladies from Pit River scolded me for talking badly of Dr. Kroeber.

We, too, need to suppose in a great way and to seek out methods to honor our ‘Grandfather’, Alfred Kroeber, recognizing that it isn’t all the time clear what’s required at significantly fraught historic moments. We have to acknowledge, worth, and acknowledge the good cultural, non secular and historic legacy of California Native Individuals, and the perversity of refusing recognition to peoples whose ancestors have been uncovered to mass deaths by the hands of the Republic and State of California. Genocide is California’s unique sin’.

Kroeber was a sophisticated and imperfect individual.  In his guide on Ishi’s Mind ,Orin Starn additionally tried to place a few of Kroeber’s ‘blind spots’ into the historic context, essentially the most disturbing being his ‘silence’ about the price of white conquest and the atrocities in opposition to Native Californians. In my article “Ishi’s Mind, Ishi’s Ashes” I quoted Kroeber’s notes in his Handbook of the Indians of California explaining why, as an anthropological  historian of the previous, he averted “the accounts of the present relations with the whites and of the occasions that have been befalling them after contact” which he dismissed because the “little historical past of pitiful occasions”.  This was a query of Kroeber’s  lifelong battles between ‘science and sentiment’.  It needed to do with Kroeber’s incapability to take care of sorrow and mourning. When Kroeber was requested who he didn’t ask Yurok villagers concerning the white conquest that had so upended their lives and livlyhood, he replied that “he couldn’t stand all of the tears”.

One other blind spot  was exposing Ishi to current his instruments and crafts to tons of of holiday makers to Anthropology Museum, and on the 1915 Pacific Exhibition.  These occasions, which Ishi did take pleasure in, nonetheless uncovered him to a deadly illness for which he had no immunization: tuberculosis.  Kroeber was inadvertently answerable for Ishi’s illness and loss of life. He grieved about this and whether or not even he himself might need been a provider of the illness that killed his first spouse.  When Kroeber left for a sabbatical yr in New York Metropolis he suspected that Ishi was gravely unwell and that this is perhaps his ultimate leave-taking.

When a letter from Dr. Saxton Pope that Ishi was dying confirmed his worst fears, Kroeber despatched pressing telegrams demanding well timed postings on his pal’s deteriorating situation. He additionally demanded that Ishi’s physique be handled respectfully and in accordance with the Indian’s request to be cremated intact. ‘If there’s any discuss concerning the pursuits of science,’ Kroeber wrote in a letter to Gifford dated 24 March 1916, ‘say for me that science can go to hell.’ However with Kroeber away, a regular post-mortem was carried out on Ishi’s physique throughout which his mind was eliminated ‘for science’.

By the point Kroeber returned to Berkeley his anger cooled down significantly. He even organized for Ishi’s mind to be packaged and shipped to the Smithsonian and to the care of Ales Hrdlicka, a bodily anthropologist of the ‘old-fashioned’ devoted to gathering and measuring mind ‘specimens’ from varied orders of primates and human ‘exotics’. Why Kroeber made such an about-face I can solely speculate. Maybe he thought that it was too late for ‘sentimental’ reservations. Ishi was useless and the injury to his physique was irreversible.  Or maybe — and to my thoughts that is essentially the most possible rationalization –Kroeber’s conduct was a symptom of  disordered mourning.

Grief could be expressed in a myriad of inchoate and displaced methods starting from denial and avoidance, as within the Yahi taboo on talking the names of the useless, to the insistence that the loss of life and loss skilled is a minor one (see Scheper-Hughes, 1992, on ‘loss of life with out weeping’ in Brazil) . Freud’s (1957) traditional essay on ‘mourning and melancholia’ definitely involves thoughts with respect to Kroeber’s personal ‘swallowed grief’ following the deaths of his first spouse after which, quickly afterwards, of his pal and key informant, Ishi, each from the identical illness.

Kroeber didn’t write the definitive historical past of Ishi and his folks. After Ishi’s loss of life, Kroeber typically averted speaking about him. In her biography, Theodora Kroeber writes that the topic of Ishi induced Alfred appreciable psychological ache and so was typically averted within the Kroeber family. Maybe Kroeber was observing the Yahi customized that forbade naming and talking of the useless. I prefer to suppose so. However a few years later Kroeber allowed Theodora to make use of him as a key informant on Ishi’s final years. And so it was Theodora who informed the story that her husband couldn’t bear to put in writing.

For all of the work Ishi did in responding to Waterman, Kroeber and Edward Sapir amongst different anthropologists, the division of Anthropology ought to have given Ishi an honorary PhD. Gerald Vizenor, a member of  the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe , then director of  Berkeley’s Native American Research program, initiated the naming of Ishi Court docket  behind Dwinelle Corridor.  Vizenor and I had conversations about there being a stupendous statue of Ishi in that area, one other unfinished undertaking.

When Ishi turned unwell with TB he knew that he was dying and he stated goodbye to Kroeber who was leaving for New York:‘You keep, I’m going.’  Ishi stated that he would quickly return together with his kin by getting into a gap within the sky that will take him to his spirit homeland.

After Ishi’s loss of life Kroeber suffered an extended and severe episode of despair and  a psychosomatic sickness that his docs recognized as neurasthenia, nervousness and exhaustion. Kroeber referred to as it his ‘hegira’, a reference to Muhammad’s departure from Mecca to Medina in AD 622. Through the subsequent few years, Kroeber, then in his 40s, started to query his career and his life targets.He entered psychoanalysis and started working towards on the Stanford Clinic the place Saxton Pope referred sufferers to him.  Kroeber continued to work on the college and the museum however for a number of years he thought of leaving anthropology for his various career, a psychoanalytic therapist. “He weighed and reappraised, after which in the end returned to anthropology and he resolved the mental and private crises of his hegira”. (Theodora Kroeber, 1970: 104-105).

When Kroeber fell mortally unwell in Paris through the convention on anthropological horizons, he was about to go away his personal horizon, and he died that night of coronary heart assault. Theodora stayed together with his physique all evening at their lodge till she was certain within the morning that “his spirit had taken go away of his physique.. to seek out its method to the path which it should journey, to the land of the useless” (T. Kroeber, 1970: 276-86). Theodora despatched a telegram conveying the unhappy information of her husband’s loss of life and his cremation in Paris stating that his  “ashes will comply with by air”.

A few of Kroeber’s Yurok pals and informants have been saddened to listen to of Alfred’s loss of life. Mary Dornback, a Yurok lady who had helped and hosted Kroeber throughout his fieldwork alongside the Klamath River, wrote a remembrance for the California Council of Indian Publication by which she expressed her tribe’s gratitude for Kroeber’s work on behalf of all California Indians for the federal Indian land claims case within the 1950s. She wrote: “Members of the Council really feel they categorical the conviction of each California Indian after we say that we are going to be perpetually grateful for the Nice Spirit ,who should have guided Dr. Alfred Louis Kroeber from Hoboken, New Jersey to California the place he quickly turned our pal and in later life our best hope for lengthy delayed justice”. (Sackman  2010, p.291).

I humbly recommend the re-naming of  Kroeber Corridor to ‘Ishi-Kroeber Corridor’. This naming would give acknowledgement  to the California genocide and to the complexities of the relations of Native Californians, anthropologists, and  to the College of California, Berkeley.

Nancy Scheper-Hughes
The Berkeley Weblog

Sources and References (a variety )

Bean, Lowell John, ed. 1994.  The Ohlone Previous and Current: Native Individuals of the San Francisco Bay Area. Ballena Press.

Bruchac, Margaret. 2018. Savage Kin: Indigenous Informants and American Anthropologists. First Peoples New Instructions in Indigenous Research. College of Arizona Press.

Deloria Jr., Vine. 1969. Custer died in your sins: An Indian manifesto. New York: Macmillan.

Heizer, R.F. and M.A Whipple, eds. 1971. The California Indians. College of California .

Heizer, Robert and Theodora Kroeber. 1979.  Ishi the Final Yahi: A Documentary Historical past. College of California Press

Jacknis, Ira. 2002. The First Boasian: Alfred Kroeber and Franz Boas, 1896-1905. American Anthropologist  vol. 104 (2) pp. 520-532.

Kroeber, Theodora. 1961. Ishi in two worlds. Berkeley: College of California Press.

_________1970. Alfred Kroeber: A private configuration. Berkeley: College of California Press.

Kroeber, Karl and Clifton Kroeber, eds.  2003. Ishi in Three Centuries. College of Nebraska Press.

Le Guin, Ursula Okay.  2004. The wave within the thoughts: Talks and essays on the author, the reader and the  creativeness. Boston: Shambhala

Lopez, Alejandra. 2002. The Largest American Indian Populations in California:

Family and Household Knowledge from the Census 2000. Demographic Report Collection No. 7.

Palo Alto: Heart for Comparative Research in Race and Ethnicity, Stanford College.

Madley, Benjamin. An American Genocide: the United Sttaes and the California Disaster. 2017. Yale College Press.

Pope, Saxton T. 1920.  The Medical Historical past of Ishi ‘ by Saxton Pope, College of California Publications in American Archeology and Ethnographyvol. 13, No. 5, pp. 38-44, Eight textual content figures, Might 15, 1920.

Sackman, Douglas Cazaux.  2010.  Wild Males: Ishi and Kroeber within the Wilderness of Fashionable America. Oxford Press.

Scheper-Hughes, Nancy.  2001 “Ishi’s Mind, Ishi’s Ashes.” Anthropology At this time17 (1) (February): 12-18.

________2002. ‘Coming to our Senses’ :Anthropology and Genocide. In Annihilating Distinction, ed. Alexander Hinton. College of California Press

________ 2003 “A Family tree of Genocide”. Fashionable Psychoanalysis28(2): 167-197.

________2003 “Ishi’s Ashes: Anthropology and Genocide.” In Ishi in Three Centuries, ed. Karl Kroeber, 99-131. Lincoln: College of Nebraska Press.

Shipek, Florence.  1989. Mission Indians and Indians of California Land Claims.  American Indian Quarterly, vol. 13 (4), pp. 409-420.

Starn, Orin.  Ishi’s Mind: In Search of America’s Final “Wild” Indian.  New York: W.W. Norton. 2004.

Steward, Julian. 1961. ‘Alfred Louis Kroeber’. American Anthropologistvol.63, pp. 1038-1065.

Stewart, Omer C.  N.D.  ‘Kroeber and the Indian Claims Instances.’

Wallace, Anthony. 1956. ‘Revitalization Actions’ American Anthropologist LV111: 264-81.

Waterman, T.T.  1918. “The Yana Indians, College of California Publications in American Archeology and Ethnography 13 (2)


Vizenor, Gerald. 1994. “Ishi Obscura,” in Manifest manners: Submit Indian warriors of Survivance. Hanover: Wesleyan College/College Press of New England.

______________1995. “Ishi and the wooden geese,” in Native American literature: A short Introduction and anthology. Edited by G. Vizenor. New York: Harper Collins.

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