World Conflict I, generally known as the “conflict to finish all wars,” occurred between July 1914 and November 11, 1918. By the tip of the conflict, over 17 million folks had been killed, together with over 100,000 American troops. Whereas the causes of the conflict are infinitely extra difficult than a easy timeline of occasions, and are nonetheless debated and mentioned to this present day, the checklist under offers an outline of probably the most frequently-cited occasions that led to conflict.
Watch Now: 5 Causes of World Conflict I
Mutual Protection Alliances
International locations all through the world have at all times made mutual protection agreements with their neighbors, treaties that might pull them into battle. These treaties meant that if one nation was attacked, the allied international locations had been sure to defend them. Earlier than World Conflict 1 started, the next alliances existed:
- Russia and Serbia
- Germany and Austria-Hungary
- France and Russia
- Britain and France and Belgium
- Japan and Britain
When Austria-Hungary declared conflict on Serbia, Russia bought concerned to defend Serbia. Germany, seeing that Russia was mobilizing, declared conflict on Russia. France was then drawn in towards Germany and Austria-Hungary. Germany attacked France by marching by means of Belgium pulling Britain into conflict. Then Japan entered the conflict to help its British allies. Later, Italy and the USA would enter on the facet of the Allies (Britain, France, Russia, and so on.).
Because the world entered the 20th century, an arms race had begun, primarily over the variety of every nation’s warships, and the rising dimension of their armies—international locations started coaching increasingly more of their younger males to be ready for battle. The warships themselves elevated in dimension, variety of weapons, velocity, methodology of propulsion, and high quality armor, starting in 1906 with Britain’s HMS Dreadnought. Dreadnought was quickly out-classed because the Royal Navy and Kaiserliche Marine shortly expanded their ranks with more and more trendy and highly effective warships.
By 1914, Germany had almost 100 warships and two million educated troopers. Nice Britain and Germany each significantly elevated their navies on this time interval. Additional, in Germany and Russia significantly, the army institution started to have a better affect on public coverage. This improve in militarism helped push the international locations concerned into conflict.
Instant Trigger: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The instant reason behind World Conflict I that made the aforementioned gadgets come into play (alliances, imperialism, militarism, and nationalism) was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary. In June 1914, a Serbian-nationalist terrorist group known as the Black Hand despatched teams to assassinate the Archduke. Their first try failed when a driver prevented a grenade thrown at their automotive. Nonetheless, later that day a Serbian nationalist named Gavrilo Princip shot the Archduke and his spouse whereas they had been driving by means of Sarajevo, Bosnia which was a part of Austria-Hungary. They died of their wounds.
The assassination was in protest to Austria-Hungary having management of this area: Serbia wished to take over Bosnia and Herzegovina. The assassination of Ferdinand led to Austria-Hungary declaring conflict on Serbia. When Russia started to mobilize to defend its alliance with Serbia, Germany declared conflict on Russia. Thus started the growth of the conflict to incorporate all these concerned within the mutual protection alliances.
The Conflict to Finish All Wars
World Conflict I noticed a change in warfare, from the hand-to-hand model of older wars to the inclusion of weapons that used expertise and eliminated the person from shut fight. The conflict had extraordinarily excessive casualties over 15 million useless and 20 million injured. The face of warfare would by no means be the identical once more.