With China formally deciding to finish its one-child coverage from 1 January 2016, it has joined a gaggle of about 56 international locations, representing a 3rd of world inhabitants, which have insurance policies selling extra inhabitants. Like China, these international locations are fearful at an growing old inhabitants and its results – a lowering workforce and elevated spending on pension and social safety. Such international locations embrace Australia, France, Germany, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Spain and Turkey.
Insurance policies in these international locations are fairly the reverse of these adopted in many of the third world, together with India, the place the final purpose is to cut back inhabitants progress. The truth is many international locations that at the moment are making an attempt to extend their populations have been providing free contraception measures until some many years in the past. In accordance with inhabitants specialists Joseph Chamie and Barry Mirkin, each previously with the United Nations Inhabitants Division, simply 13 international locations had insurance policies to encourage inhabitants progress 4 many years in the past.
There are about 34 international locations and territories on this planet whose populations are declining. These embrace Japan, Spain, Portugal, Greece and several other East European international locations.

A greater measure of the way forward for nationwide populations is the fertility price, that’s, the typical variety of youngsters born to a lady in her little one bearing years. At a sure degree of fertility price, inhabitants progress turns into zero – the variety of deaths are balanced out by the variety of births. Such a degree of fertility is known as the substitute degree. About 82 international locations, together with China, have fertility charges which can be beneath the substitute degree.
Many international locations have adopted measures to encourage inhabitants progress. These fluctuate from starter kits containing garments, mattresses, nappies, towels and so forth. given to all new moms by the Finnish authorities to the Japanese authorities sponsored ‘konkatsu’ events for younger singles to fulfill and, hopefully, get married rapidly.
In Turkey, monetary incentives are given for each little one born, in addition to discouragement of abortions. In Russia, a household is paid $12500 for having or adopting a second little one. Carried out since 2006, this coverage led to the delivery price surpassing the dying price for the primary time in 2013. Singapore presents growing monetary incentives for each little one born to some.
The most well-liked coverage, particularly within the richer international locations, for encouraging extra little one bearing is longer paid leaves for mom and father, beneficiant tax breaks and credit, nurseries or crèches, and different types of state sponsored little one care. All that is to ease the monetary burden of getting a toddler, which is estimated at 20-30 p.c of the household revenue in Western Europe.
In China, {couples} seem like affected by this situation of prices. After the comfort of 1 little one coverage in 2013 allowing these {couples}, one in all whom was a single little one, to have a second one, simply 13 p.c of the eligible 11 million {couples} had utilized for the second little one based on information until Might this yr. Analysts in China stated this was principally as a result of further prices.
Presently, China has 140 million girls of child-bearing age who’ve already raised a toddler based on official reviews. About 90 million of them are anticipated to have a second little one, based on Wang Pei’an, deputy head of the Nationwide Well being and Household Planning Fee, quoted by Xinhua.
One other strategy to tackling the declining and growing old inhabitants disaster in prosperous international locations is encouraging immigration of youthful individuals. This has been practiced in Germany, France and lots of different international locations.



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